is a metamorphic mineral and a strongly pleochroic gem material.
Rare Earth ElementsRare Earths
- Special materials used in electronics, defense, medical & many other products.
Fire OpalFire Opal
is a transparent to translucent opal with a yellow, orange or red background color.
Crater of DiamondsCrater of Diamonds
- The only diamond mine in the world where you can be the miner.
is metamorphic rock formed when sandstone is subjected to heat and pressure.
- Galleries of igneous, sedimentary and metamorphic rock photos with descriptions.
is a byproduct of the natural gas industry. Its most important use is in MRI.
Pyroxene MineralsPyroxene Minerals
are a group of chain silicate minerals found in igneous and metamorphic rocks.
Phytoplankton BloomsPhytoplankton Blooms
are caused by an explosive growth rate of plankton in surface waters.
Bear AttacksBear Attacks
- Knowing how to react to a bear encounter or attack could save your life.
Mineral LusterWhat Is Luster?
Luster is the light-reflecting characteristics of a mineral specimen.
Hardness PicksHardness Picks
- Test for hardness with precise and easy-to-use hardness picks.
is the primary ore of zirconium and a gemstone that is available in many colors.
Crystal HabitCrystal Habit
is the external shape displayed by a crystal or an aggregate of crystals.
is a diverse material. This gallery includes photos of sand from around the world.
Rock and Mineral KitsRock & Mineral Kits
The best way to learn about rocks and minerals is with specimens!
Mineral HardnessMohs Hardness Scale
is a set of reference minerals used for classroom hardness testing.
Types of MapsTypes of Maps
- Explore some of the most popular types of maps that have been made.
Largest HurricanesLargest Hurricanes
Are they determined by wind speed, value of damage, most deaths?
Map of the OceansMap of the Oceans
- showing the Atlantic, Pacific, Indian, Arctic, and Southern Oceans.
- A porous limestone composed almost entirely of fossil debris.
Ruby and SapphireRuby and Sapphire
are the 2nd and 3rd most popular colored stones in the United States.
Mount EtnaMount Etna
- The most active volcano in Europe continues an eruption that started in 2001.
The Acid TestThe Acid Test
- Geologists use dilute hydrochloric acid to identify carbonate minerals.
Volcanic ExplosivityVolcanic Explosivity
- Rating volcanic eruptions based upon the volume of tephra ejected.
Blue FlamesBlue Flames
and the largest highly acidic lake in the world at Kawah Ijen Volcano.
Tallest TsunamiTallest Tsunami
- A wave with a run-up height of 1720 feet occurred in Lituya Bay, Alaska.
Teacher ResourcesTeacher Resources
- K-12 resources for teaching about earth science.
Fool*s GoldFool*s Gold
is a name used for pyrite when its brassy color fools people looking for gold.
Rock TumblersRock Tumblers
- All about rock tumblers and rock tumbling. Read before you buy a tumbler.
Geology ToolsGeology Tools
Rock hammers, field bags, hand lenses, maps, hardness picks, gold pans.
San Andreas FaultWhat is the San Andreas Fault?
Map, photos and description of the fault.
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- Descriptions, photos, articles, properties and uses for common minerals.
- the volcanic rock that cools so quickly that it becomes a natural glass.
- the only important ore of mercury. Used in pigments until its toxicity was realized.
OpalsPictures of Opal
- A collection of different types of opal from all around the world and Mars too!
Google Earth - FreeFree Google Earth
software allows you to browse seamless world satellite images. Free.
Mars MeteoritesMars Meteorites
Mars rovers have found dozens of meteorites while exploring the red planet.
Utica ShaleUtica Shale
is a major source of oil, natural gas and natural gas liquids in PA, OH and WV.
is an orange to pink gemstone, a variety of beryl, that is growing rapidly in popularity.
Watch out for Ticks!Ticks
are a problem for geologists in some areas. Learn to recognize and avoid them.
are amorphous naturally-occurring inorganic solids that lack crystallinity.
American GemstonesMined in America
- Small mines in the United States produce a diversity of beautiful gemstones.
is a metamorphic rock with properties that make it suitable for a variety of projects.
is the third hardest mineral. It is also the mineral of ruby and sapphire.
- a manganese mineral used as an ore, a pink gem and an ornamental stone.
Colored DiamondsColored Diamonds
are diamonds with a noticeable body color. They can sell for over $1M/carat.
Wall MapsWall Maps
- Wall maps of the world, continents, states and the USA.
is a feldspar mineral that sometimes exhibits an iridescent play-of-color.
Underwater VolcanoHawaii*s Next Island
could be growing in the Pacific Ocean right now. Its name is Lo*ihi.
- Colorful images and articles about diamonds and colored stones.
is a purple silicate mineral, found only in Russia, used as a gem material.
- The intrusive igneous rock that underlies continents and countertops.
June 6th 1912Novarupta
- The most powerful volcanic eruption of the 20th century occurred in the U.S.A.
What is Geology?What is Geology?
The study of Earth materials, structures, processes and life over time.
What Is The Moho?What Is The Moho?
The Mohorovicic Discontinuity is the mantle/crust boundary.
Ethiopian OpalEthiopian Opal
- The new opal heavyweight that might give Australia a run.
are gems assigned to the month of a person*s birth. They are popular gifts in the U.S.
- The rock that has quickly transformed the oil and gas industry.
- Used as an ore of copper, a pigment, ornamental stone and gem material.
- Learn about the properties of diamond, its many uses, and diamond discoveries.
100+ Gemstones100+ Gems
- Photos of over 100 beautiful gems ranging from the popular to the obscure.
DeLorme AtlasTopo Maps
- The DeLorme Atlas is an entire state of topo maps in one convenient book.
Gem SilicaGem Silica
is a blue chalcedony colored by copper. It is the rarest and most valuable chalcedony.
Methane HydrateMethane Hydrate
deposits contain more fuel value than all other fossil fuels combined.
look like ordinary rocks on the outside but can be spectacular inside!
Mineral RightsMineral Rights
- Who owns the minerals under your land? Who wants to buy them?
Waterproof PaperWaterproof Paper
- Don't take chances with your field notes and maps. Use waterproof paper.
Grape AgateGrape Agate
is a popular mineral specimen with the color and the shape of a bunch of grapes.
- A bluish-green gem material that has been used for over 6000 years.
Herkimer DiamondsHerkimer Diamonds
Doubly-terminated quartz crystals used as specimens and gems.
- The most important ore of iron. A source of mineral pigment since prehistory.
- Rocks that were once parts of planets or large asteroids.
Gifts That RockGifts That Rock
- What are the most popular gift items in the Geology.com store?
Rock SaltRock Salt
is a sedimentary rock composed of the mineral halite. It has many uses!
Expansive SoilExpansive Soil
causes more damage than floods, hurricanes & tornadoes combined.
Lapis LazuliLapis Lazuli
- a metamorphic rock and the most popular blue opaque gemstone in history.
- The most important ore of copper for over five thousand years.
An extrusive igneous rock with a high silica content, produced from granitic magma.
Lightning Strikes MapLightning Strikes Map
by NASA shows the worldwide distribution of lightning activity.
- Articles about volcanoes, volcanic hazards and eruptions past and present.
Geology BooksGeology Books
- A variety of books for reference, field trips, reading and more.
Plate TectonicsPlate Tectonics
- Articles and maps about plate tectonics and the interior of Earth.
UV Mineral LampPortable UV Lamp
- Short and long wave UV for fluorescent mineral viewing.
is the most popular green gemstone in the United States and most of the world.
Tallest MountainTallest Mountain
- Everest has rivals in tallness, altitude and distance to the center of Earth.
Rock ArtRock Art
- People have been marking on rocks for thousands of years.
was unknown until a few decades ago but it has erupted into wide popularity.
Rocks on MarsRocks on Mars
Many of the rocks found on Mars are not very different from Earth rocks.
Ant Hill GarnetsAnt Hill Garnets
- tiny gems that ants haul to the surface and discard on their anthill. Honest!
Uses of MarbleThe Uses of Marble
are numerous and diverse. You will be surprised by how it is used.
Field CoursesField Courses
- Over 80 field courses for undergraduate geology students.
Debris FlowsDebris Flows
are moving masses of loose mud, sand, soil, rock and water.
What is a Maar?What is a Maar?
The second most common volcanic landscape feature on Earth.
Fluorescent MineralsFluorescent Minerals
and rocks glow with spectacular colors under ultraviolet light.
Tallest WaterfallAngel Falls
in Venezuela is the tallest waterfall in the world - it is 3212 feet tall.
- an extremely colorful mineral and gem material.
Homeowners InsuranceHomeowners Insurance
might not cover earthquake, hurricane and other geohazard damage.
is a variety of limestone formed from fine-grained marine sediment known as ooze.
Petrified WoodPetrified Wood
is a fossil that forms when silica replaces and infills the cavities of wood.
Cave of the HandsCave of the Hands
is a cave where ancient people painted hands about 9000 years ago.
Don*t Go To JailKnow the Rules
before removing rocks, fossils or minerals from public or private property.
Uses of TalcTalc
is a soft mineral used in cosmetics, paper, paint, ceramics and many other products.
Storm SurgeStorm Surge
can be the most damaging and deadly aspect of a hurricane.
Largest VolcanoesLargest Volcano
- That title is shared by Tamu Massif, Mauna Kea and Ojos del Salado.
is a chromite host rock, a source of diamonds and a possible carbon dioxide sink.
Mount VesuviusMount Vesuvius
- geology, history, maps, facts and more about the Vesuvius eruptions.
- The primary ore of titanium and source of most titanium dioxide.
What is a Geyser?What is a Geyser?
Photos and information about geysers in many parts of the world.
Horizontal DrillingHorizontal Drilling
has opened new resources and significantly improved productivity.
Cinder ConesCinder Cones
are the smallest, simplest, and most common type of volcano.
- Abundant in Earth*s mantle. A constituent of meteorites. The gem peridot.